Bipolar Disorder and its Neurobiology

The neurobiological mechanisms of bipolar disorder are not fully understood, limiting the advancements of novel therapies. It is known, however, that bipolar disorder may occur due to the interaction between genetic factors that trigger susceptibility and predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating environmental considerations that include stress and traumatic experiences. Neuroimaging and post-mortem studies have shown that cell damage and resulted loss of brain tissue is caused by dysfunctions in intracellular biochemical cascades, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction that harm the processes related to to neuronal plasticity. Researchers reviewed data that indicates that particularly in acute mood episodes, peripheral biomarkers correlated with hormones, inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurotrophins are changed in bipolar disorders.

Reference: Young, A.H., Juruena, M.F. (2020). The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder. In: Young, A.H., Juruena, M.F. (eds) Bipolar Disorder: From Neuroscience to Treatment. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, vol 48. Springer, Cham. doi:10.1007/7854_2020_179

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